Resource Page

Rethinking waste & value in Warren County: a guide to informational resources

  1. SPATIAL DATA SOURCES
  2. OFFICIAL SOURCES
  3. UNOFFICIAL SOURCES
  4. IMAGINATIVE SOURCES

 

1. SPATIAL DATA SOURCES

North Carolina Maps. UNC University Libraries, 1 July 2007. Web. 18 Mar. 2012 <http://www.lib.unc.edu/dc/ncmaps>.

This source contains many useful maps, often specifically of Warren County or cities within the county. An especially interesting group of maps depicts downtown Warrenton, N.C. at several points in time between 1885 and 1918, including the names of streets, stores, and other politically and economically important features. The resource also contains maps of the county as a whole from both the 19th and 20th centuries, including features such as highway maintenance, public works, and geodetic surveys.

Warren County GIS/Mapping System. GIS/Information Technology, 1 July 2006. Web. 17 Mar. 2012 <http://www.warrencountyncgis.org/gomaps/map>.

Although the Warren County website includes downloadable GIS data, its GIS/Mapping system is an interactive online tool that includes several different kinds of spatial data and allows users to customize a county map based on their needs and preferences. This source includes several layers that can be overlaid on one another including physical characteristics, political boundaries, and points of interest from which a PDF file can be created. Data about specific selected features can also be displayed in a table.

“Warren County Map Book.” Map. Warren County Government. 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012.

This map book includes and is issued by the Warren County Government website and includes important environmental issues such as flooding areas, voting precinct, roads but will also be nice to use because the has its own GIS map creating portion of the site that includes tabular information as well as maps. Saying they may not be accurate, however, is disturbing in trying to use for research because its quality is in question: “The maps and GIS products contained herein were prepared for use by the County of Warren.The County makes no representation of warranty as to their accuracy, and in particular, their accuracy in labeling, dimensions, contours, property boundaries, or placement or location of any map features thereon”

“Warren County Townships.” Map. Warren County Government. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileUploads/forms/39_WarrenCountyTownships.pdf>.

This is a map of the municipal townships in Warren County and for comparison to the voting districts it is slightly different.

“Warren County Voting Precincts.” Map. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileUploads/forms/1_VOTING%20PRECINCTS.pdf>.

This a map of voting districts in Warren County and may help in seeing political implications of environmental justice.

Warren County Waste Sites. Warren County Public Works, 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012 <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileUploads/forms/MapofSolidWasteSites7-09.pdf>.

This source is a map of Warren County showing the locations of solid waste sites. It also details major roads, communities, and water sources. This Warren County Public Works website shares the county’s nine waste collection centers, lists materials allowed for disposal, and links to a map of the solid waste sites. The shapefiles of hazardous waste and landfill sites, available through the NC DENR, could be selectively used and combined to locate additional waste sites in the county, as well as sites in the region and state outside of Warren County. This information could help shape a re-mapping of current waste management in the county, in order to visualize flows and sedimentation of contemporary waste streams.

 

2. OFFICIAL RESOURCES

2010 Community Health Survey. Healthy North Carolinians, 2010. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileUploads/forms/437_2010%20CommunityHealthOpinionSurvey.pdf>.

This 2010 survey is about the health and quality of life in Warren County, North Carolina. The Warren County Health Department, Healthy Carolinians of Warren County various county agencies and citizens claim to use the results of this survey to help them to develop plans for addressing the major health and community issues in Warren County. This form lacks any questions about environmental justice, meaning either the issues have been fixed completely or it is still not discussed. There is only one question that addresses the possibility of environmental issues where it asks to choose the most important/concerning issue in the area, with “Pollution (air, water, land)” as one option.


Clinton, William. Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. Executive Order 12898. Washington, D.C.: The White House, February 11, 1994. Web. <http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/execordr.html>.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1 Mar. 2012. Web. <http://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice/>.

U.S. General Accounting Office. Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1983. Web. <http://www.gao.gov/products/RCED-83-168>.

The three governmental sources above reflect how the federal government has managed the rise of environmental justice as a public concern. The third, a report from the U.S. GAO was written soon after the Warren County protests, and reflects the realization at the time that landfill sites significantly correlated with racial and socioeconomic demographics of the surrounding populations. The first, an executive order signed by the former president, lays out an institutional framework that is the task of the EPA today, including inter-agency working groups and survey/monitoring efforts to promote environmental justice. These sources illustrate an institutional narrative of environmental justice, including how the excess of waste is brought under control through management and technical expertise.


Exec. Order No. 12898, 3 C.F.R. (1994). Web.

This executive order, while nearly a decade removed from the peak of the environmental justice movement in Warren County, made specific and clear: a working group should be formed to analyze the current situation of low income and minority populations receiving the brunt of pollution, waste, etc. in many parts of the country. It also calls for empirical and qualitative analysis of localities in terms of their physical and social landscapes before, during, and after the inclusion of an activity where environmental justice may be infringed upon, especially in low income and minority areas, directly in line with Warren County and its endeavors. Signed by President Clinton, this will help in outlining the progress not just locally but nationally and perhaps globally that is integral to our research paper.


North Carolina Listings in the National Register of Historic Places as of 3/2/2012. North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, 2 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012 <http://www.hpo.ncdcr.gov/NR-PDFs.pdf>.

This document contains all North Carolina-based listings in the National Register of Historic Places as of March 2, 2012. It provides a list of these places organized by county and in some cases linked to digitized records of each historic place. These records are highly useful as they provide detailed information about each property and its significance, including its geographic location, a highly-detailed description of the building itself and the surrounding area, a historical narrative providing the context in which each property was built and used as well as the names of historic figures associated with it, a statement of significance including specific reasons for preservation, and a list of footnotes and/or bibliographic sources that may contain further information about significant historical events or the buildings themselves.


Warren County – 2022 Comprehensive Development Plan (Land Use Plan). Warren County Board of Commissioners, 11 Mar. 2002. Web. 16 Mar. 2012 <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileUploads/forms/158_ComprehensiveLandDevelopmentPlan.pdf>.

This source serves as one of the most important documents for future land use planning in Warren County. Its purpose is to give a detailed description of the prevailing conditions, both natural and manmade, in the county, using this information to conceive a future image of the area and develop a plan for that image. The source begins with an overview and historical preface for the current situation in Warren County and concludes by outlining specific goals and objectives for planning. The document provides information on diverse subjects including the county’s population, economy, water resources, and agriculture, along with many more. This document addresses the changing demographics in terms of age, gender, population growth, ethnic groups, finances, etc. in both tabular and map form followed by analysis and conclusions on various topics such as transportation, waste, and soil usage. It discusses historical sites and goals/objectives in regards to land use in Warren County from both a short and long term perspective.


Warren County Government. Solid Waste Plan Brochure. Warren County Government, 2006. Warren County Gov. 2006. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileUploads/forms/51_WarrenCountySolidWasteBrochure.pdf>.

This is an interesting source published by the Warren County Government website that describes a 2004-2006 plan published by Warren County Solid Waste saying it is working towards a cleaner Warren County. It describes both tips to residents/citizens (which indicates how the government treats and instructs its citizens) as well as their own plans, describing their processes and landfill operation, including names and descriptions of varying sites as well as hours of operation. This can be viewed as a more current view of the issue, relatively removed from the environmental justice movement, but something that may help describe current processes.


Warren County (NC) County Profile. Thrive in N.C., NC Department of Commerce, Jan. 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012 <http://accessnc.commerce.state.nc.us/docs/countyProfile/NC/37185.pdf>.

This source pulls together school surveys, ESRI information, census data, and other government reports to create a concise fact sheet about Warren County as it is today. Percentages and data are given for the county’s demographic profile, work, income, employment, housing, and education statistics, and local businesses. The final category includes a quality of life index based off of taxes, weather, and child and health care. There is also a basic map of the county included. This source can provide an understanding of how much, if at all, Warren County has changed in the last 30 years, where its weaknesses and opportunities are, and potentially what strengths it can call upon to improve it future.


Worth, Linda T. Warren County Public Works. Warren County, NC, 2009. Web. 20 Mar 2012 <http://www.warrencountync.com/_fileuploads/forms/WarrenCounty 10YearSolidWastePlan.pdf>.

This official resource covers not just an evaluation of the current waste situation in Warren County, but the official waste management plan of the county. It includes goals for waste reduction in the future, as well as how citizens of Warren County participated in the creation of the waste management plan.

 

3. UNOFFICIAL SOURCES

Commission for Racial Justice. Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites. New York: United Church of Christ, 1987. Web. <http://www.ucc.org/about-us/archives/pdfs/toxwrace87.pdf>.

Lee, Charles. Proceedings: The First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit. New York: United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice, 1992.

Bullard, Robert. “Environmental Justice in the 21st Century.”  Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm>.

Bullard, Robert. “Environmental Racism PCB Landfill Finally Remedied But No Reparations for Residents.” Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University. 12 Jan. 2004. Web. 19 Mar. , 2012. <http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/warren%20county%20rdb.htm>.

The four sources listed above provide foundational knowledge in environmental justice history, much of which has been constructed by non-official sources. The first document is the first report that clearly correlated race/socioeconomics and siting of waste landfills. The second document describes the proceedings of the first national summit of local leaders and community movements that articulated the principles of environmental justice from a social movement perspective. The third and fourth sources are historical and explanatory essays by scholar Robert Bullard, which outline the legal and political trajectory of environmental justice, particularly in relation to state actors. Together, these sources offer a sense of the directions and scope of environmental justice, that the local waste/value conversations in Warren County have been and are always in conversation with.

Environmental Justice Yesterday and Today. Our Road to Walk, 2012. Web. 19 Mar. 2012 <http://environmentaljustice-pollutionprevention.org/?page_id=8>.

This page of the website of Our Road to Walk, an organization based on promoting environmental justice, provides a very detailed timeline of the history of the environmental justice movement. The large majority of the events included are those related directly to Warren County, N.C., beginning with the “Midnight Dumpings” of pollutants on NC roadsides in 1978 to the “current” (2009) problems associated with the Warren County PCB landfill.

Ferruccio, Deborah. “Remember PCB protests.” Warren County News. 1 Sep. 2011, Web. <http://www.vancnews.com/the_warren_record/opinion/article_e3461415-ec5d-5190-9b40-54aa6cb8cfcc.html>.

This unofficial source details how Warren County views their own environmental justice struggles.

Ferruccio, Deborah & Ken. “What are your perspectives on the PCB issue?.” Warren County News. 15 Feb 2012, Web. 20 Mar. 2012. <http://www.vancnews.com/the_warren_record/opinion/article_088d85e0-57dd-11e1-a046-001871e3ce6c.html>.

This is an unofficial source for current local opinions on the environmental justice issues in Warren County. This source also has continual updates as a discussion board, could be a very relevant source to find contacts who for research projects.

Warren Co., North Carolina Family Histories And/or Family Narratives. NCGenWeb Project, 14 Jan. 2012. Web. 17 Mar. 2012 <http://www.ncgenweb.us/ncwarren/fam-hist/fam-idx.htm>.

This resource includes family records of the prominent historical families in Warren County, including family names such as Duke and Jones that other sources have mentioned. These accounts generally begin with a brief history of the family including when and how they arrived in Warren County and other significant social and political contributions of the family. The source also includes links to archived family papers, many of which can be found in the Southern Historical Collection at UNC.

Jennifer. “Rural North Carolina Communities.” Weblog comment. Roads To Justice North Carolina. 9 May 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. <http://www.roadstojustice.org/the-birth-of-the-environmental-justice-movement-in-warren-county>.

The above resource is a blogpost and addresses the same concerns as the “NRDC” citation description provides.

McGurty, Eileen Maura. Transforming Environmentalism: Warren County, PCBs, and the Origins of Environmental Justice. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2009. Print.

This book is an most important textual resource because it is a comprehensive look at who and what Warren County is in its own individual state, continuing to describe in full detail how  environmental degradation and injustices were shaped by the use of PCB’s. It describes Warren County as a place full of the possibility to flourish but was always taken advantage of.

“Our Road to Walk. Environmental Justice: Yesterday and Today.” Web. 19 Mar. 2012. <http://environmentaljustice-pollutionprevention.org/>.

This website developed primarily by Deborah Ferruccio offers her particular history of environmental justice as a citizen science movement. The website includes details of important events in the movement timeline, as well as a limited digitized archive of images and documents pertaining to this history. The material here, as well as the much more extensive physical archive Deborah keeps, may be helpful as well in creatively visualizing the spatial dynamics of the movement, including events performed at particular sites in the county.

Robert Bullard – the Genesis of Environmental Justice. A Fierce Green Fire, 14 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Mar. 2012 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EL1FTRNPU08>.

In this video, one of many clips that will soon be incorporated into a documentary film, Robert Bullard talks about the beginnings of the environmental justice movement in Warren County, North Carolina. He mentions how a single individual, Ben Chavis, was able to attract protestors within and outside of Warren County to the cause. He then mentions how the once-local movement was recognized nationally and became not only an environmental movement, but one based around civil rights and human rights.

Skelton, Renee, and Vernice Miller. “The Environmental Justice Movement.” National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). 12 Oct. 2006. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nrdc.org/ej/history/hej.asp>.

From a historical perspective the roots of the environmental justice movement and environmental justice in general in Warren County after years of landfill dumping and toxic pollutants being exposed to the local population, one of a poor minority community. It shows the first time that people can be taken advantage of by our their local environment is used. They will be vital in helping shape a historical perspective and the social, political, and economic perspectives of Warren County and how its evolution unfolded, especially with attention to the late 1970’s/1980’s when the movement took a stronghold.

Weldon, Luci. “Clean-up at Norlina solid waste site almost complete.” The Warren Record, March 15, 2012. Web. <http://www.vancnews.com/the_warren_record/news/article_62041c54-6d56-11e1-87c0-001871e3ce6c.html>.

Weldon, Luci. “Mixed media artist leads ‘no waste’ lifestyle.” The Warren Record, November 16, 2011. Web. <http://www.vancnews.com/the_warren_record/news/article_cc672427-8b35-563f-bb78-e4b2b52020bd.html>.

Weldon, Luci. “Local duo presents history of PCB protests to Early College students.” The Warren Record, March 7, 2012. Web. <http://www.vancnews.com/the_warren_record/news/article_c13874be-685a-11e1-87ea-0019bb2963f4.html>.

Weldon, Luci. “Lake Gaston gets recycling depot.” The Warren Record, September 28, 2011. Web. <http://www.vancnews.com/lake_gaston_gazette_observer/news/article_f80be259-3405-50a5-934b-f26218162096.html>.

The articles above were generated by an online search for ‘waste Warren County’ in The Warren Record. This local newspaper is an important unofficial source to explore local issues and conversations on waste in Warren County. This initial exploratory search offers several possibilities for mapping waste/value in the contemporary landscape, including formal institutional and non-formal resident efforts to reduce waste or transform waste into value. Possibilities generated by this search include: solid waste sites and neighboring community impacts; e-waste processing; recycling and reuse projects, including the artist efforts detailed in one of the articles above.

 

4. IMAGINATIVE SOURCES

A Driving Tour of Warren County. Preservation Warrenton. Brochure. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.preservationwarrenton.com/projects.php>.

This brochure, by the private entity Preservation Warrenton, offers a map marking important historical locations in Warren County. The map pictured in the brochure may serve as a visual representation of mainstream historical representations of Warren County, and may also provide inspiration for counter-maps that aim to document the marginalized history of environmental justice and other primarily black histories in Warren County.
Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record/Historic American Landscapes Survey. Library of Congress, After 1 Jan. 1933. Web. 18 Mar. 2012 <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/>.

This source contains useful imaginative data in the form of architecture, featuring some of the historic buildings of Warren County including several private residences and the Peter Davis Store. These records display one or more photos of each location and in some cases contain detailed architectural drawings and additional data including related names and geographic position. Although these buildings have cultural and historic value, they also give a sense of the architectural style and preferences during the time that they were built.